Laguna de Términos Mangroves, its brackish waters have developed a number of aquatic species such as sea bass, small sharks, crabs, oysters, turtles, and storks. The Laguna de Términos lagoon is located in the southwest of the state, near the Tabasco border. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico only by the Isla del Carmen. It receives fresh water from most of Campeche’s rivers as well as salt water from the Gulf. The lagoon is ringed by smaller lakes and forms the most important lake-lagoon system in the country. This system formed about five thousand years ago by the accumulation of sediment carried by surrounding rivers. This system connects to the Sabancuy estuary to the northeast. These lakes include Atasta, Pom, Puerto Rico, El Este, Del Vapor, Del Corte, Pargos and Panlau.
Average annual rainfall varies between 900 and 2000 mm. Campeche is in the tropics with a humid climate with a defined rainy and relatively dry season from late winter to early spring. Average annual temperature is 26C with highs up to 36C in the summer and lows of 17C in the winter. The hottest and most humid areas of the state are along the coast between the Laguna de Términos and the northern border. In the winter, storms from the north called “nortes” can bring colder dry air from the area of the United States. In the late summer, there are sometimes hurricanes. Prevailing winds are from the northwest from November to March, from the north between September and October, from the southeast from June to August and from the south in April and May.
Campeche has large expanses of mangroves which dominate the swamps. Non swamp areas are dominated by palm trees. Wildlife is dominated by bird and reptile species such as storks, pelicans, ducks, seagulls, lizards, turtles and water snakes. The Mountain region is in the north and east of the state consisting of two chains of low hills called the Dzibalchen and Sierra Alta. The state has a number of ecosystems, from rainforest, to savanna to coast and sea. Environmentally, the state is divided into four major regions. The coast region consists of the entire coastline of the state and a strip of shallow water just offshore called the Sonda de Campeche with coral reefs and low islands called cays. It also includes the savannah area and an area called Los Chenes, where natural wells called cenotes are common. This area is noted for its tropical hardwoods and the chicle or gum tree. Many of the plants used in the state’s cuisine such as achiote and tropical fruits are from here. This area is under threat due to over exploitation. The River region is located in the southwest of the state, named after the various rivers that flow here, mostly emptying into the Laguna de Términos. It has the hottest and most humid climate in Campeche with wildlife and vegetation similar to that found in both the Rainforest and Coast regions. Wildlife includes deer, armadillos, rabbits, quail, and woodpeckers. The Rainforest region is located on the center and south of the state with a wide variety of trees including tropical hardwoods such as mahogany.
Campeche´s protected areas are: The Laguna de Términos Reserve, Calakmul Biosphere Reserve and the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve with total an area of 1,810,597 hectares. The Laguna de Términos Reserve includes the lagoon and the area surrounding it with an area of 705,017 hectares. The Calakmul Reserve was created in 1989 over 723,185 hectares. It consists of Yucatán and Tehuantepec moist forests, containing high and medium growth semi-deciduous forests and seasonally flooded low height semi-deciduous forests. It was established in 1994. The wildlife is dependent on a varied and complex system of fresh and brackish water. The reserve extends over 382 hectares in the municipalities of Campeche, Tenabo, Hecelchakan and Calkini. Los Petenes is a natural reserve consisting of isolated pockets of rainforest with mangrove areas in between.
Main Campeche Flora. Ceiba pentandra, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Mangle, Haematoxylum campechianum, Bixa orellana.
Main Campeche Fauna. Trichechus, Mazama americana, Eretmochelys imbricata, Crax rubra, Caiman, Panthera onca, Meleagris ocellata, Stenella, Leopardus pardalis, Boa constrictor.